Democracy at Risk. The Growth of Nationalism and Extreme Right Parties as Threat to the EU - Ewa Rokicka

Democracy at Risk. The Growth of Nationalism and Extreme Right Parties as Threat to the EU

Ewa Rokicka

22,45 zł

Dostępne formaty plików: PDF

Wydawnictwo Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego
ISBN 978-83-8220-017-1
Data wydania 2020
Język: Angielski
Liczba stron: 201
Rozmiar pliku: 5,5 MB
Zabezpieczenie: Znak wodny
22,45 zł

Dostępne formaty plików: PDF



The book analyses the threats to democracy that are associated with the rise of extreme-right parties and xenophobia in European Union countries. The authors show that the growing distrust towards democratic institutions and the increasing strength of populism and nationalism are connected with persistent inequalities and the malign focus on immigrants as scapegoats for the misery. Case studies from Germany, Great Britain, and Poland examine the details of the anti-democratic movements in these countries. They demonstrate the real threats to democracy and peaceful coexistence, and to the very future of the European project, its principles of solidarity and its political ambitions of convergence through mutual support. The reader will find in the book extensive empirical material outlining the situation in the European Union, along with proposals for solving the region’s social, economic and political dilemmas, for reversing the trends of fragmentation and for revitalising Europe’s democratic culture.

Spis treści

Preface 7

1. Aspects of Democracy 11

1.1. Introduction 11

1.2. Democracy, nationalism and populism 16

Bibliography 24

2. The harmful impacts of market dogmatism and austerity policy 25

2.1. From the welfare state to the “competition state” 25

2.2. Greece as a laboratory for austerity policy 26

Bibliography 33

3. Rising inequality in Europe 35

3.1. Introduction 35

3.2. Description of inequality in Europe 36

3.3. Causes of the inequality growth 47

3.4. Consequences of increasing inequalities 56

Conclusion 64

Bibliography 65

4. EU strategies to combat regional inequality and poverty 69

4.1. Introduction 69

4.2. The objectives of convergence 70

4.3. The goals of EU’s regional funding 72

Bibliography 77

5. Better regulation and more democratic culture through the governance concept in the European Union 79

5.1. Introduction 79

5.2. Outdated structures 80

5.3. Complex policy decision-making 82

5.4. The broad meaning of governance from the EU’s perspective 85

5.5. The principle of subsidiarity 87

5.6. Involving civil society 90

5.7. Transparency 92

5.8. The Open Method of Coordination 93

5.9. Better regulation complying with the proportionality principle 95

5.10. “Smart Regulation”: a new strategy of governance 97

5.11. Conclusion 99

Bibliography 100

6. The case of Germany: reasons for the growth of “Alternative für Deutschland” (AfD) in the former GDR 103

6.1. Introduction 103

6.2. Failing convergence despite the German system of interstate equalisation 104

6.3. Poor economic conditions in the former GDR 108

6.4. Conclusion 114

Bibliography 117

7. Case study UK: populism in Britain – the bitter harvest of financialisation, value-extraction and inequality 119

7.1. Introduction 119

7.2. Britain’s singularity: the blessing and the curse of history 121

7.3. Financialisation and the new hegemony of disorder 130

7.4. Financialisation: politically irresponsible, economically destructive and socially corrosive 131

7.5. The weaponisation of insecurity in British political culture before the 2016 referendum 140

Bibliography 149

8. Case Study Poland 153

8.1. Poland and the European Union. Disputes and controversies 153

8.2. Poland and the Copenhagen political criteria 158

8.3. Poland and economic criteria 161

8.4. Poland and volitional criteria 163

8.5. Polexit? 164

Bibliography 168

9. Rising xenophobia facing immigration 169

9.1. The challenge 169

9.2. The background of mass immigration to Europe 171

9.3. Emergence of populist right-wing parties 173

9.4. Peaceful multiculturalism at risk 178

9.5. Humane alternatives to risky migration and xenophobia – needed steps to reduce harmful migration 182

Bibliography 189

10. What should and could be done to regain democracy 193

Bibliography 199

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