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The Jewish Community: Authority and Social Control in Poznan and Swarz... - Anna Michałowska-Mycielska

The Jewish Community: Authority and Social Control in Poznan and Swarz...

Wydawnictwo: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Dialog
ISBN: 978-83-8002-254-6
Język: Angielski
Data wydania: 2015
Liczba stron: 353
Rozmiar pliku: 17,1 MB
Zabezpieczenie: Znak wodny
Nasza cena:
19,00 zł

Dostępne formaty plików:

MOBI , EPUB

Książka - napisana przede wszystkim na podstawie źródeł żydowskich, przeważnie w języku hebrajskim - stanowi cenny wkład w badania nad dziejami Żydów w Polsce. Na przykładzie gmin w Poznaniu i Swarzędzu pokazuje mechanizmy funkcjonowania i politykę władz gminy żydowskiej w epoce nowożytnej w okresie między zakończeniem wojen szwedzkich a schyłkiem Rzeczypospolitej. Szczegółowy opis oraz analiza struktury władz gminnych, sposobu ich wyłaniania i funkcjonowania pozwala nie tylko zrozumieć, jak gminy funkcjonowały, ale także jakie przyczyny prowadziły do zmian.

 

This book fe­atu­res the me­cha­ni­sms un­der­ly­ing the ope­ra­tion of Je­wish com­mu­ni­ties and the po­li­cies pur­su­ed by com­mu­ni­ty au­tho­ri­ties in ear­ly mo­dem ti­mes. The com­mu­ni­ties fe­atu­red are Po­znań and Swa­rzędz. Al­tho­ugh au­tho­ri­ty was ma­in­ly exer­ci­sed in a com­mu­ni­ty by the ka­hal and its of­fi­cials, the rab­bi, bro­ther­ho­ods, and cra­ft­smen’s gu­ilds were also in­vo­lved in the com­mu­ni­ty’s ma­na­ge­ment. The pur­po­se of this work is also to hi­gh­li­ght the mu­tu­al in­ter­de­pen­den­cies be­twe­en all of the­se gro­ups.
It is by no me­ans ac­ci­den­tal that Wiel­ko­pol­ska (Gre­at Po­land) has been cho­sen as an exam­ple. This re­gion, im­por­tant in de­mo­gra­phic and cul­tu­ral terms, was the area of the ear­liest Je­wish set­tle­ment in Po­lish lands. Je­rzy To­pol­ski de­scri­bed Wiel­ko­pol­ska’s uni­que so­cio­eco­no­mic struc­tu­re. Agri­cul­tu­re and in­du­stry sha­ped the area’s eco­no­my (with the gran­ge ca­te­ring to the do­me­stic mar­ket ra­ther than to exports across the Bal­tic Sea, with no­bi­li­ty more in­c­li­ned to in­vest, with hi­gh­ly de­ve­lo­ped she­ep bre­eding and te­xti­le in­du­stry, wo­olen cloth pro­duc­tion in par­ti­cu­lar, and with a high sha­re of urban po­pu­la­tion, a po­si­ti­ve tra­de ba­lan­ce, and a high sha­re of pe­cu­nia­ry rent in pe­asants’ per­for­man­ces to the­ir lords). Wiel­ko­pol­ska was ma­in­ly in­ha­bi­ted by me­dium no­bi­li­ty and the­re were no lar­ge ma­gna­te es­ta­tes, ty­pi­cal of the eastern re­gions of the Po­lish-Li­thu­anian Com­mon­we­alth. Owing to Wiel­ko­pol­ska’s spe­ci­fi­ci­ty, the na­tu­re of Je­wish set­tle­ment in this re­gion was di­stinc­tly dif­fe­rent from that in other re­gions: Jews ma­in­ly set­tled in towns,ta­king up such ty­pi­cal urban oc­cu­pa­tions as tra­de and cra­fts. The book pre­do­mi­nan­tly re­lies on the ar­chi­val so­ur­ces pro­du­ced by two Je­wish com­mu­ni­ties in Wiel­ko­pol­ska – in Po­znań and Swa­rzędz – which are am­ple and very well pre­se­rved com­pa­red to tho­se of other Com­mon­we­alth’s com­mu­ni­ties. It also fe­atu­res bro­ader phe­no­me­na cha­rac­te­ri­stic of the way the Je­wish self-go­vern­ment func­tio­ned at the lo­cal le­vel. It is also worth un­der­sco­ring that the sta­te of es­ta­tes, whe­re in­di­vi­du­al es­ta­tes exer­ci­sed se­pa­ra­te ri­ghts and were dif­fe­ren­tly or­ga­ni­zed, was a very good gro­und for the growth of such self-go­vern­ment.
This se­cond En­glish edi­tion of the book is lar­ge­ly due to the unflag­ging in­te­rest in the hi­sto­ry and cul­tu­re of the Po­lish Jews. That in­te­rest is not a mere fad, but a phe­no­me­non that has be­co­me a per­ma­nent fe­atu­re of hi­sto­ri­cal wri­ting. The­re is also a no­ti­ce­able trend for scho­lars, who are in­cre­asin­gly bet­ter pre­pa­red in terms of re­se­arch to­ols and lan­gu­age, to fo­cus on that area of stu­dy. Which trans­la­tes into a new per­cep­tion of the pla­ce and role of the Jews wi­tho­ut whom the so­cio-eco­no­mic land­sca­pe of the an­cient Com­mon­we­alth wo­uld have been hi­gh­ly in­com­ple­te and spar­se. It is be­co­ming more wi­de­spre­ad in Po­land, too, as evi­den­ced by the emer­gen­ce of va­rio­us mu­seums which fe­atu­re/un­der­sco­re the pre­sen­ce of Jews in lo­cal com­mu­ni­ties. As the Mu­seum of the Hi­sto­ry of Po­lish Jews, re­cen­tly ope­ned in War­saw, best de­mon­stra­tes. The Po­znań com­mu­ni­ty is one of the ol­dest Je­wish com­mu­ni­ties in the Po­lish lands. The ol­dest re­fe­ren­ce to Jews li­ving in Po­znań (Po­zna) co­mes from 1379.[1] Le­gend has it that a sy­na­go­gue was bu­ilt in that town in 1367, first re­fer­red to in so­ur­ce ma­te­rials in 1449. The first men­tion of the ce­me­te­ry co­mes from 1438.Ano­ther Po­znań le­gend, which most pro­ba­bly da­tes from the se­cond half of the 15th cen­tu­ry, tells abo­ut the host pro­fa­ned by the Po­znań Jews in 1399.

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